February 29, 2012

Defeating enemy Electronic Warfare through Tactical Data Links and Network Integration

News Report

An interesting article on DefenseNews illustrates how Tactical Data Links and network integration are expected to play a key role in defeating enemy electronic warfare efforts during future conflicts. Data-link networks allow aircraft and other systems to cross-check their information and allow war fighters to filter out bad information being transmitted by hostile electronic warfare systems.

One of the counters to some of the adversary electronic warfare capability is that network integration,” said recently Lt. Gen. Herbert Carlisle, the U.S. Air Force’s deputy chief for operations, plans and requirements. “Even active electronically scanned array radars can be attacked, but it takes a dedicated effort to jam those systems. A combination of sensor fusion and networking could overcome such attacks however”.

The Technology

Tactical Data Links (TDLs) involve transmissions of bit-oriented digital information which are exchanged via message formats used in support of joint and combined operations. They can provides real-time, jam-resistant secure transfer of combat data, voice and relative navigation information between widely dispersed battle elements. Participants gain situational awareness by exchanging digital data over a common communication link that is continuously and automatically updated in real time, reducing the chance of fratricide, duplicate assignments or missed targets. Each participant in the communication link is able to electronically see the battle space, including assigned targets or threats.

In the recent years, several programs have been established (particularly in the U.S.) to transform conventional Tactical Data Links (e.g. Link 16, Link 22, and Variable Message Format) to comply with a modern net-centric vision. Within these programs, TDLs are being expanded to assess and transform joint data link communications to the net centric standards, and to ensure interoperability and seamless integration with Joint communication systems. The implementation of these network capabilities into the data link environment is expected to enhance the decision cycle between sensor-to-shooter; providing information-superiority, shared environment that enhances combat power by increasing speed of command, higher tempo of operations, greater lethality, increased survivability, and self synchronization. This transformation must balance the needs of the warfighters with the requirements for net centric operations.

In the U.S., an Advanced Tactical Data Link (ATDL) study was started in 2008 to evaluate various data link alternatives for contested and anti access airspace scenarios. This activity, that culminated in a public solicitation from the U.S. Navy, responds to a critical requirement for increased connectivity and capacity between the tactical and airborne domain to exploit complementary C2, ISR and targeting for greater mission effectiveness. Current tactical communication capabilities have limited throughput and scalability, insufficient AJ (anti-jam) and LPE (low probability of exploitation) capability, and high latency and network join times. Link-16, the most widely used airborne tactical data link, provides C2, SA, weapons coordination, electronic warfare, and other capabilities, but does not meet emerging throughput, scalability, and latency requirements, especially in high electronic attack environments. In this context, the ATDL aims at complementing existing links to support integrated sensing and weapons coordination and control across air, maritime and ground domains for both manned and unmanned platforms.

U.S. Navy is particularly interested in advanced tactical data link capability for the E-2D Hawkeye carrier-based maritime surveillance aircraft, the F/A-18G Growler electronic warfare jet, the F-35 joint strike fighter, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

References: DefenseNews (1), C4I Technology News (2), FBO.GOV (3), Military&Aerospace (4)

February 28, 2012

Contract Award: Cassidian to provide its Operations Support System for sustaining German Army's MedEvac missions

News Report

As reported in a recent press release, EADS's Cassidian will support the Forward Air Medical Evacuation (FwdAirMedEvac) mission carried out with NH90 helicopters of the German Army in the evacuation of ill and injured persons. For this purpose, the German Federal Office of Defence Technology and Procurement (BWB) ordered a total of eight units of Cassidian’s mobile EUA operations support system for mission control, preparation and planning.

From the end of 2012, German Army Aviation will be in charge of providing forward air medical evacuation in Afghanistan using their NH90 helicopters. The FwdAirMedEvac helicopters will provide a solid base for emergency medical care for German soldiers in crisis areas.

The Technology

Cassidian's EUA operations support system combines operational command and control with technical logistic support. The system offers reliable support of on-board systems and avionics equipment with adaptable configurations for planning, updating and analysing the airborne operations. EUA covers all aspects from communication, tactical situation management, mission preparation, briefing up to mission restitution / debriefing and it offers support for maintenance planning for aircraft operation.

Its current adaptation complements its extension ordered in May last year for the support helicopter Tiger ASGARD (Afghanistan Stabilisation German Army Rapid Deployment) which, from October 2012, will also be used to support the German mission in Afghanistan. The EUA operations support system, developed by Cassidian, integrates the capabilities of the German helicopters into the integrated military command, which is ensured via the German Army C3I System (FüInfoSys H), for both MedEvac and armed support missions.

The new generation of the EUA with an updated software configuration allows the system to be used for all helicopter types of the German Army and Air Force: the support helicopter (UH) Tiger, the tactical transport helicopter (TTH), the light transport helicopter (LTH) NH90 and the transport helicopter CH-53GA. In future, the German Armed Forces will operate their helicopter fleet using a standardised operations support system which not only enables operational readiness to be increased, but also permits operating costs to be reduced.

From the end of 2012, the EUA will also be used to support the missions of the HAD and HAP variants of the Spanish Tiger helicopters.

References: EADS (1), ILA (2)

February 27, 2012

Contract Award: DRS to enhance critical situational awareness on Growler aircrafts

News Report

As announced in a recent press release, Finmeccanica's DRS has been awarded a $7.9 million contract from Boeing to further design, develop and integrate the Joint Tactical Terminal – Receiver (JTT-R) for the EA-18G Growler aircraft, for which DRS has been supporting with initial JTT-R integration since July 2009.

The Technology

Joint Tactical Terminal provides critical data links to battle managers, intelligence centers, air defenders, fire support elements, and aviation nodes across all services and aboard airborne, sea-going, subsurface, and ground mobile mission platforms.

The JTT-R provides the capability to receive near real-time threat, survivor and Blue Force Tracking data for presentation of critical situational awareness information to the user. It receives this critical data via Integrated Broadcast Service and Common Interactive Broadcast waveforms over UHF Satellite Communications links. The JTT-R can be mounted in fixed and rotary wing aircraft, surface, and stationary or mobile ground platforms and vehicles to supply the tactical data link to battle managers, intelligence centres, air defence, fire support and aviation nodes.

Within the terms of the contract, The JTT-R serves as a replacement to the legacy U.S. Navy’s EA-18G Growler's Multi-mission Advanced Tactical Terminal (MATT), which is reaching end-of-life with the impending transition to the common interactive broadcast (CIB) waveform.

The U.S. Navy’s EA-18G Growler is a variant of the combat-proven F/A-18F Super Hornet Block II that conducts Airborne Electronic Attack (AEA) missions. It is the U.S. Navy replacement for its current AEA aircraft, the EA-6B Prowler. Growler missions are mainly electronic attack (EA) and suppression of enemy air defences (SEAD), particularly at the start and on-going early stages of hostilities.


We are honored to support Boeing and the U.S. Navy by bringing this increased, critical situational awareness capability to the EA-18G Growler,” said DRS ICAS president Logen Thiran. “The JTT-R will further ensure this aircraft remains the most advanced U.S. Navy airborne electronic attack platform.

References: DRS (1), Naval-Technology (2), argreenhouse (3)

Indian Army's Future Soldier Program F-INSAS enters into the procurement phase

News Report

A recent entry appeared on Army-Technology reviews the multibillion dollar Indian Army's programme that is aimed at transforming infantrymen into fully-networked, digitised, and self-contained 21st century warriors, named F-INSAS (Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System). The program, which is planned to be rolled out in stages between 2012 and 2020, has been described by Indian defence officials as similar in scope and objectives to infantry modernisation projects like the US Army's Future Force Warrior initiative.

In this context, news sources report that the Indian MoD has recently issued a global tender for the acqusition of new assault rifles, CQB carbines (Close Quarters Battle) and lightweight ballistic helmets with internal communication gear. Indian MoD is currently preparing RFPs for light-machine guns, modular bullet-proof jackets, holographic reflex weapon sights, soldier-wearable computers, communication and surveillance equipment.

The Program

Future Infantry Soldier as a System (F-INSAS) concept is based on the lessons gained from conflicts worldwide and intends making the Indian soldier a "self-contained fighting machine". F-INSAS perceives a multi mission, multi role war fighter who is part of the system that contains numerous modular integrated sub systems. The concept identifies the need to provide infantry soldier with enhanced capabilities in terms of lethality, survivability, sustainability, mobility, communications, and situational awareness.

The F-INSAS roadmap, laid out by Indian defence officials at the project's outset, states that the new system will be supplied to eight to ten infantry battalions (up to 10,000 soldiers) by 2015, with all 325 battalions fully upgraded by 2020.

The first objective of the F-INSAS project is the development of a new standard-issue armament to replace the ageing INSAS (INdian Small Arms System) rifle, that was developed by India's Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) and introduced by the Ordnance Factory Board in the late 1990s. To replace the INSAS, the Indian Army wants to develop or acquire a new modular, multicalibre suite of weapons. The primary weapon is planned to be a rifle capable of firing 5.56mm and 7.62mm ammunition with a new 6.8mm under-development. This first stage alone will reportedly cost up to Rs250bn ($5Bn).
In the later stages of the programme, however, the Indian Army intends to complement its new weapon platforms with a range of high-tech equipment for its infantry soldiers. This equipment includes a new helmet with mounted thermal sensors and night vision, as well as cameras and chemical and biological sensors. The helmet will have an integrated visor with a heads-up display (HUD) capable of outputting images with the equivalent space of two 17-inch computer screens. Other proposed accessories include a full battle-suit with a bullet-proof and waterproof jacket, health sensors and even solar charging devices. This kind of personal energy generation could be used to power the soldier's HUD and sensor systems, as well as a wrist-mounted Palmtop GPS system that will be used to increase battlefield awareness and act as a networked messaging system between battalions and their commanders.

In general terms, F-INSAS is divided into five sub-systems:
  • modular weapons;
  • body armour and individual equipment;
  • weapon sights and hand-held target acquisition devices;
  • communication equipment;
  • portable computers ("wrist displays'' for soldiers and "planning boards'' for commanders).
The F-INSAS is what the infantry soldier of the future will be equipped with. It will be a multi-function weapon system with several features integrated into its design. It would be able to fight at close quarters, tackle distant targets and monitor attacks coming from all directions and accordingly respond. It would also have detailed communication mechanisms. For example, the system would ensure that communication between the rifle and the soldier is done through electronic means,” said Surendra Kumar, director of Indian Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE).

The Context

In today's modern and evolving armies, the infantry soldier continues to play a central role in all kinds of operational scenarios and terrain. His mission spectrum is complex, it requires him to be enabled with enhanced capabilities, that would to sustain him in high mobility operations in difficult and unfamiliar terrain. The infantryman operating in urban areas and under extreme climatic conditions has to prepare to face asymmetric threats. To meet these operational requirements and to enable the soldier to fight better and survive, most of the armies worldwide are engaged in infantry soldier's modernisation programmes, and are equipping their soldiers with advanced versions of existing systems and emerging technologies. The most significant of these programmes are Land Warrior in the U.S., IdZ-ES in Germany, FIST in UK, Soldato Futuro in Italy, and FÉLIN in France.

References: Army-Technology (1), rediff.com (2), The Times of India (3), Indian Defense Project Sentinel (4)

February 24, 2012

U.S. Army's plans for fielding Capability Set 13 on eight Brigade Combat Teams

News Report

As reported by U.S. Army, beginning early next year eight U.S. brigade combat teams will be equipped with an advanced, integrated tactical communications network. The U.S. service is now synchronizing the production, fielding and training for Capability Set 13, which is composed of vehicles, network components, and associated equipment and software. These technologies will for the first time deliver an integrated voice and data capability throughout the brigade combat team formation down to the tactical edge.

Capability Set Management

Capability Set Management (CSM) is the U.S. Army process for managing network capabilities as a cohesive portfolio and synchronizing all supporting activities.  This revolutionary new way of designing, procuring, testing and ultimately delivering Network capabilities to Soldiers should enable the Army to place new and emerging capabilities into their hands early and often. CSM evaluates the current operational environment, then designs a suite of systems and equipment, a “capability set”, to answer the projected requirements of a two-year period.  Instead of developing a capability and buying upfront enough to cover the entire force, the Army will procure only what is needed by units in the train-ready and deployment pools.  Every two years or so, U.S. Army will integrate the next capability set, which will reflect any changes or advances in technology realized since the last set was fielded.

Each Capability Set undergoes operational evaluations prior to fielding to assess the collective functionality and interoperability of the set, each component’s individual performance and compliance with architectural standards.  Soldiers participates in these assessments and their feedback shape how the U.S. Army determines operational requirements and will guide materiel development. Capability Set 13, in particular, has taken shape through the Network Integration Evaluations, or NIEs, a series of semi-annual field exercises designed to quickly integrate and mature U.S. Army's tactical communications network. The connectivity, architecture and components of the capability set will be validated and finalized at the NIE 12.2, which takes place in May at White Sands Missile Range, N.M., and Fort Bliss, Texas, involving 3,800 Soldiers of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division executing realistic operational scenarios. Capability Set 13 will produce a tangible increase in U.S. Army network capability. 8 brigades will be equipped at the beginning of 2102, and ultimately at least 20 brigades will receive fully integrated network equipment suites.

The centerpiece of Capability Set 13 is the Warfighter Information Network-Tactical Increment 2, a major upgrade to the tactical communications backbone that will enable mission command on-the-move and extend satellite communications to the company level. Integration and configuration of WIN-T Increment 2 equipment on combat vehicles is now underway at U.S. Army facilities in preparation for production and synchronized fielding. The formal operational test for WIN-T Increment 2 will take place in conjunction with NIE 12.2.

The Agile Process

The U.S. Army has leveraged commercial industry to achieve significant modernization of network capabilities through the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan using the flexibility of contingency funding and operational necessity. The challenge has been to define a process that enables success within the current materiel enterprise framework. Under the NIE effort, U.S. Army has established a similar operational environment at Fort Bliss/WSMR, supported by laboratory analysis at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, to institute an “Agile Process” that will introduce and evaluate commercial technologies in a controlled setting.

The Agile Process is thus an effort to procure critical capabilities in a more rapid manner, while ensuring technical maturity and integration synchronization. The ultimate end state of the Agile Process, the NIE, is to procure and align systems that meet a pre-defined operational need or gap and demonstrate success through Soldier lead evaluations during the Network Integration Evaluation.

The U.S. Army is also working to formalize the precise mechanisms through which contracts can emerge from the NIE process. Earlier this week, in its first procurement action resulting from the NIEs and Agile Process, the U.S. Army issued a "sources sought" notice for a single-channel, vehicle-mounted radio. The radios, known as Soldier Radio Waveform, or SRW, will act as a conduit for voice and data between the dismounted Soldier, his unit and higher headquarters, increasing situational awareness and reducing fratricide. This procurement, planned in time for Capability Set 13, illustrates how the NIEs and the Agile Process allow U.S. Army and industry to work together to quickly fulfill network hardware and software capability gaps.

References: U.S. Army (1,2,3)

February 23, 2012

Harris' Falcon Networking System connects warfighters to the tactical cloud

News Report

As announced in a press release, Harris recently unveiled its new Falcon networking system, which is presented as the first end-to-end system for connecting warfighters in the field to the tactical cloud. The system broadens and simplifies the delivery of secure video, data and other crucial command and control applications over both wideband tactical and emerging cellular networks.

The Technology

Warfighters today face challenges accessing data when their missions take them beyond the range of command center infrastructure. The new system combines information technology resources, such as a computer server and Falcon wideband tactical radio, into an integrated, lightweight package that can be deployed to support missions at the tactical edge. By utilizing the Falcon networking system, tactical users can now access applications and other critical data files that were previously beyond their reach due to constraints in bandwidth and power. Designed for on-the-move operations, the Falcon networking system delivers assured wireless network connectivity, content and services to mobile and dismounted soldiers. The system enables reliable, persistent distribution of vital information between higher headquarters, through command vehicles, to the squad.

Building on the proven capabilities of the AN/PRC-117G radio, Harris' solution extends the network to the edge with the most complete mobile system available. The standard configuration of the system includes:
  • Tactical Radios, i.e. the Harris' Falcon III® AN/PRC-117G, the low-profile 50-watt vehicular amplifier adapter (VAA), which also provide Sierra™ II software programmable encryption and wideband data performance with the Harris Adaptive Networking Wideband Waveform (ANW2) and the Soldier Radio Waveform (SRW).
  • A Network Communications Server, i.e. a small, rugged and scalable network integration center which includes dual security enclaves with embedded routers and servers and standards-based interfaces to support radio cross-banding, distributed information routing, and hosting of mission-critical applications.
  • Tactical Cellulars. To help transform the user experience in military communications, Harris designed the Falcon networking system with a 4G tactical cellular module that will enable warfighters to use ruggedized smartphones and other lightweight devices on the battlefield. Tactical cellular service in the system adds capacity, speed and 4G LTE standards to the battlefield with all key components — antennas, filters, baseband and controls — contained in a rugged enclosure. The system contains an LTE Core that provides basic voice, data, video and network management through a standards-based solution compatible with commercial user equipment. Future enhancements will include roaming and composed security solutions.

"Harris is committed to developing technology that significantly enhances the utility of the tactical network," said George Helm, president, Department of Defense business, Harris RF Communications. "This system builds on our expertise in tactical communications and high-grade information security to deliver assured network connectivity, content and services, where and when they are needed. In short, our system delivers information to the right place at the right time in harsh and remote environments."

References: Harris (1,2)

February 22, 2012

DRS unveils its Android-based SCORPION family of rugged handheld computers

News Report

As illustrated in a recent press release, Finmeccanica's DRS Technologies announced that its Tactical Systems division will launch the Scorpion family of rugged handheld computers at the next AUSA ILW Winter Symposium and Exposition. DRS developed the Scorpion handheld computers for dismounted command and control and improved situational awareness for U.S. Soldiers and Marines.  The product, which is a result of a Broad Agency Announcement contract for the Joint Battle Command-Platform Handheld System, is a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) handheld computer running the Android operating system and interfaces with tactical radios for the exchange of information on the battlefield.

The Technology

DRS' Scorpion family of handheld computers provides first responders and dismounted organizational leaders a task and mission configurable handheld computing solution. Configurable to meet the demands of the dismounted Warfighter, the computer features the latest Android operating system and is equipped with a dual core processor and robust memory and storage capacity. The modular design of the product allows for future enhancements and additions such as information assurance implementation, extended battery life, an RFID reader, and a Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM) GPS.

Features of the Scorpion handhelds include a high resolution 4 inch multi-touch display which allows users to easily pan and zoom without the use of a function key, an 8 megapixel camera, and FlexCharge which provides the user the ability to charge the device while interacting with tactical radios.

References: DRS (1,2)

French Army's FÉLIN digitized soldier system participates in a Franco-British live exercise

News Report

As announced by French Army and then reported by Defence-Aerospace, soldiers of the French 8th Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (8th RPIMa) and soldiers of the UK 5th Battalion Royal Regiment of Scotland took part on Feb. 13-17 in a bilateral Franco-British Combined Arms Live Fire Exercise (CALFEX). During the event, French soldiers operated the new digitized soldier system Fantassin à Équipements et Liaisons Intégrées (FÉLIN). The system was tested under tactical conditions intended to closely reproduce those normally encountered on theaters of operation on which the French army is likely to be deployed.

The Technology

Sagem's FÉLIN (Fantassin à Équipements et Liaisons Intégrées) is an integrated soldier system designed to enhance all the dismounted soldier’s operational functions: protection, observation, C4I, weapons use, mobility and support. The system is customized into five configurations for different levels of command, with the standard configuration including a portable computer, a voice and data radio, new combat clothing with body armour and a new ballistic helmet.

The individual soldier system is equipped with a radio and a GPS. The system exploits a dedicated voice and data network that connects the individual soldier to other infantrymen in the section and to the section commander, who is connected to the vehicle battle management system (Sagem's SITEL). FÉLIN's tactical radio is the "VHF-over-IP"  PR4G VS4 from Thales, which provides tactical internet connectivity and links the dismounted soldier to the vehicle's SITEL.

FÉLIN is one of the most studied soldier systems to date, in terms of integration. The French DGA (Délégation Générale pour L'Armement), Sagem and the French Army have worked to create something very close to the needs of the soldier in terms of ergonomics, integration and understanding the battlefield mission. Specifically, the DGA provided a target weight for the system of less than 25kg, to include the entire system, weapons, ammunitions, and 24-hour energy, food and water provisions. Effort was also directed to the selection of the energy supplies and the method of recharging batteries.

The Context

In 1996, the French French Ministry of Defence Procurement Agency (DGA, Délégation Générale pour L'Armement), placed a contract on an industrial team led by Thales for the development of a dismounted combatant equipment technology demonstrator (équipement du combattant débarqué) or FÉLIN. The system was tested over a two-year period from 1999 and 2001, when the DGA invited Sagem and an industrial team of Giat and Thales to carry out FÉLIN definition studies. The DGA selected Sagem as the preferred bidder in 2003 and awarded the FÉLIN V1 (version 1) contract in March 2004.

References: French Army (1), Defence-Aerospace (2), Defence-Talk (3), Army-Technology (4)

February 21, 2012

Contract Award: NSI to enhance U.S. Air Force Intelligence Analysis and Reporting capabilities

News Report

As announced in a recent press release, NCI has been awarded a competitive task order valued at approximately $5 million under its Air Force Network Centric Solutions (NETCENTS) contract to standardize and integrate the Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) Analysis and Reporting Team (DART) system across the U.S. Air Force DCGS enterprise. The project has a 24 month period of performance.

This effort is part of the “DART Standardization Across the Enterprise” initiative focused on standardizing a set of Multi-Intelligence tools that are used in support of U.S. Air Force DCGS missions.

The Technology

DCGS is the U.S. Air Force's premier globally networked intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance system. DCGS is based upon a network centric system-of-systems architecture that conducts collaborative intelligence operations and provides both physical and electronic distribution of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance data.

The DCGS produces intelligence information collected by the U-2, RQ-4 Global Hawk, MQ-9 Reaper and MQ-1 Predator. The DCGS currently participates in operations throughout the world including those led by United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, U.S. Central Command, U.S. European Command, U.S. Forces Korea, U.S. Northern Command, U.S. Pacific Command and U.S. Southern Command operations throughout the world.

Within the DCGS, the DART mission is to improve the quality, responsiveness and relevance of the intelligence analysis that U.S. Air Force provides to its customers. The DART accomplishes this mission in three ways. First, it correlates and fuse data derived from the multiple ISR platforms and sensors that DCGS operates, manages or exploits. Second, it further combines the AF DCGS-derived information with other available intelligence data from non-DCGS sources to provide improved context in the weapon system reporting. Third, it provides a regionalized 24/7 customer focus that allows DCGS to rapidly adapt collection tactics, products, and dissemination methods to meet changing customer needs.

The DART analyst needs to be able to perform timely queries, to a variety of internal and external sources, correlate data, produce products, and post those products to the appropriate locations to enable the timely and effective exploitation of the ISR data.

The Context

Raytheon is the prime contractor for the U.S. Air Force DCGS contract, with Lockheed-Martin, L-3 Communications, Northrop Grumman, Hughes, Goodrich and Houston-Fearless operating as major system contractors.

As already illustrated in this blog, Raytheon was recently awarded a $179.5 million follow-on contract by the U.S. Air Force to provide Contractor Field Service (CFS) support for U-2 sensors, data links and the Air Force Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS). Raytheon has been prime on the CFS program providing support to the warfighter since the original contract was awarded in 1999.

Under the terms of the last DCGS contract, NCI will partner with Raytheon to provide a unique solution for the DART standardization and integration requirement that not only eliminates unnecessary spending for duplicate systems, tools, and software, but also enables DCGS operators to perform DART functions smarter and faster.

References: NCI (1), U.S. Air Force (2), C4I Technology News (3)

General Dynamics demonstrates advances in on-the-move satellite communications

News Report

As illustrated in a recent press release, General Dynamics C4 Systems recently completed the first demonstration of secure voice and data communications via the Mobile User Objective System (MUOS) satellite-communications waveform. The demonstration used the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) Handheld, Manpack, Small Form Fit (HMS) two-channel networking radio (AN/PRC-155), running the MUOS waveform software, to transmit encrypted voice through a MUOS-satellite simulator to the MUOS ground station equipment that will soon be deployed in Sicily.

The Technology

MUOS is a is a next-generation narrowband tactical satellite communications system designed to significantly improve ground communications for U.S. forces on the move. The system will enable secure, mobile networked communications worldwide, in even the most-austere environments. MUOS consists of four geostationary earth orbit satellites with an additional on-orbit spare, and a fiber optic terrestrial network connecting four ground stations around the globe. Each satellite will feature two payloads that enable the system to integrate with the existing architecture while upgrading military users to the new wideband code division multiple access system, which will provide mobile warfighters point-to-point and netted communications services at enhanced data rates and priority-based access to on-demand voice, video and data transfers.

The new waveform is termed the MUOS Common Air Interface (CAI), a Software Communications Architecture compliant modulations technique for the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) terminals. User terminals will be in fact provided by the U.S. military under the JTRS program, with an emphasis on handheld, soldier-worn units. For users, the MUOS system will provide familiar cellular phone-like services with the satellites acting as very tall “towers” to allow warfighters on the ground to communicate directly with each other and their commanders virtually anywhere in the world.

The flow of information between users when MUOS is operational will be much different than today’s systems. Users will communicate with the satellite via UHF WCDMA links and the satellites will relay this to one of four ground sites located in Hawaii, Norfolk, Sicily, and Australia via a Ka-band feederlink. These ground sites are interconnected to switching and network management facilities located in Hawaii and Virginia. These facilities identify the destination of the communications and route the information to the appropriate ground site for Ka-band uplink to the satellite and UHF WCDMA downlink to the correct users. Network management will feature a government controlled, priority-based resource management capability that will be adaptable and responsive to changing operational communication requirements. Additionally, MUOS will provide access to select Defense Information System Network services, a voice and data capability that has not been available to UHF MILSATCOM users on prior systems. For satellite telemetry, tracking and command, MUOS will use the existing control system operated by the NavalSatelliteOperationsCenter at Pt. Mugu, California with the Air Force Satellite Control Network as a back-up.

When MUOS is fielded it will serve a mixed terminal population. Some users will have terminals only able to support the legacy waveforms while other users will have newer terminal able to support the MUOS CAI. In anticipation of this, each MUOS satellite carries a legacy payload that will continue to support legacy terminals, allowing for a more gradual transition to the MUOS WCDMA waveform.

For the time being, development of the MUOS waveform remains on track for completion in the third quarter of 2012. By year-end, the MUOS capability will be available on the General Dynamics' AN/PRC-155 manpack radio, the first MUOS terminal that will be available to soldiers. The AN/PRC-155 is a two-channel, software-defined radio capable of network-centric connectivity and legacy interoperability, supporting advanced (SRW, MUOS) and current-force (SINCGARS, SATCOM, HF, EPLRS, etc.) waveforms.

General Dynamics' AN/PRC-155 Two-Channel Networking Manpack Radio
Other radio vendors are keeping close tabs on General Dynamics’ progress developing the MUOS waveform through the JTRS Open Information Repository, a resource designed to link vendors to open-source software initiatives. Harris, for example, plans to provide MUOS capability through its Falcon III AN/PRC-117G tactical satellite radios. Those software-defined, multiband radios used in ground vehicles and command posts were redesigned in 2010 to become MUOS-compatible. Once the MUOS waveform is ready, Harris will begin loading it onto approximately 10,000 AN/PRC-117G radios fielded..

The Context

Lockheed Martin is the MUOS prime contractor and system integrator, and was awarded in 2004 a $2.1 billion contract to build the first two satellites and associated ground control elements by the U.S. Navy’s Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) (competing against the Raytheon team).

General Dynamics is leading the development and deployment of the MUOS ground system that provides communications and control interfaces between the MUOS satellites and existing and future U.S. Department of Defense terrestrial communication networks. General Dynamics also is providing the wireless protocol for communication between those networks and the MUOS satellites.

References: General Dynamics (1,2,3), Gunter's Space Page (4), DefenceTalk (5), U.S. Navy (6), Space News (7)

February 20, 2012

SRI Sarnoff's TerraSight enhances data and information sharing capabilities for dismounted soldiers

News Report

As announced in a recent press release, SRI Sarnoff’s TerraSight video and information processing now includes a new salience-based compression (SBC) module which allows dismounted soldiers to view and communicate mission-critical information on handheld devices.

The Technology

SRI Sarnoff's TerraSight is a video exploitation solution that provides situational understanding, targeting, sensor cross-cueing, and forensic reconstruction. It addresses the increasing demand for air and ground video surveillance exploitation by utilizing real-time video from a variety of manned, unmanned, and ground sensors including Battle Command and Intelligence data. The TerraSight product suite enables C4ISR competency and increases mission effectiveness for a diverse group of end-users such as mission commanders, tactical operators, and imagery analysts.

The TerraSight suite is organized into a set of three core components (TerraSight Manager, TerraSight 3D Visualizer, and TerraSight Server) that provide image and data capture, dissemination, visualization, and archiving. Additional modules detect and highlight moving objects, support video analysis, and improve accuracy of geolocation.

The new TerraShight's SBC module reduces overall bandwidth requirements to 50 Kbps (kilobits per second) and below, enabling the distribution of relevant, full-motion video and data over existing, bandwidth-limited wireless communication networks. SBC makes it possible for soldiers on the ground to leverage key accurate data and information sent from forward operating bases. Soldiers can now select relevant areas of interest and update data for real-time two-way communication. The SBC module chooses targets based on motion, key infrared (IR) signatures, and operator selection.

TerraSight provides precise, context-rich information for sensor control, data storage, vision processing and 3D visualization. Since SBC can further compress pixels around a selected area, soldiers are now able to focus on a specific area of interest in the video or data sent to them. Using TerraSight with SBC, dismounted soldiers can access a list of cameras to control orientation and zoom, enabling them to better understand and execute within their tactical environment.

References: SRI International (1,2)

U.S. reshape their spending on Cyber Warfare

News Report

An interesting post on Military.com illustrates how the Pentagon spending on cybersecurity would largely remain flat under the U.S. Defense Department's budget proposal, in contrast with the global reduction of U.S. military budget, and in line with the fact that the cyber threat is escalating at a dramatic rate, and terror groups and rogue nations are trying to acquire the ability to breach, destroy or take control of critical networks and military systems.

"We are in the 21st century and we have to use 21st century capabilities," Defense Secretary Leon Panetta told senators this week. "That's the reason this budget invests in space, in cyberspace, in long-range precision strike, and in the continued growth of special operations forces to ensure that we can still confront and defeat multiple adversaries even with the force structure reductions."

Spending on cybersecurity programs to $3.4 billion, roughly what it was last year. In this context, there will be added funding for U.S. Cyber Command, largely for operations and research into how the military should respond to the persistent cyberattacks and probes of its networks. And the budget for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, or DARPA, will also increase as the department invests more in high-tech research and equipment.

"We've identified efficiencies and redirected resources to better match mission-critical needs," said Pentagon spokesman George Little. "We're using our cyber dollars more wisely, and as a result, we believe this budget will allow us to further boost our cyber capabilities."

References: Military.com (1)

ITT Exelis' updated JTRS Bowman Waveform supports Battlefield Interoperability between U.K. and U.S. soldiers

News Report

As announced in a recent press release, ITT Exelis delivered an updated Joint Tactical Radio System Bowman Waveform (JBW) to the JTRS Information Repository as part of a $4.2 million delivery order that also included Soldier Radio – Multifunctional (SR-M) software-defined radios. The SR-M radios delivered to the JTRS Program Executive Office in this sale will be transferred to the U.K. government for upcoming assessment and trials for the JBW.

The JBW allows U.S. Forces to communicate directly and securely with U.K. allies using the Bowman VHF waveform on the battlefield.  JBW functionality enables users from both countries to work as a cohesive team during combat operations, sharing situational awareness information more efficiently and effectively, rather than using separate channels to pass information back and forth.

The JTRS Bowman VHF waveform software application was developed by ITT under contract to the JTRS Network Enterprise Domain. It is to enable operators of U.S. JTRS radios to participate directly in the U.K.’s Bowman network. With such waveform, U.S. and U.K. forces are able to communicate and share data, despite their different radio systems.


This radio-agnostic approach toward waveform development under the JTRS business model provides our government customer greater value and increased competition for radios,” said Ken Peterman, president of the Exelis Communications and Force Protection Systems business area. “At the same time, it also provides greater capability to U.S. and U.K. military forces through interoperability on the battlefield.

The Context

Back in 2002, representatives from the U.S. Defense Department and the U.K. Ministry of Defense signed an agreement to enhance battlefield interoperability via the U.K. Bowman communications system. Soon after, the JTRS program office awarded a contract to ITT to develop a Joint Tactical Radio System Bowman waveform, i.e. a software application that would allow JTRS users to add the U.K. radio system into the U.S. network. Since that date, U.K and U.S. are keep on working together to create a network in which U.S., U.K. and coalition units will be able to share information and situational awareness as if they were the flanking formations of the same nation.

Bowman is a tactical communications system integrating digital voice and data technology to provide secure radio, telephone, intercom and tactical internet services in a modular and fully integrated system. The programme includes the conversion of over 18,000 platforms. Specifically, as well as being man-portable, Bowman equipment fits into most UK military vehicles from Land Rover Wolf to the Challenger 2 Main Battle Tank, as weel as fixed HQ buildings, naval vessels, aircrafts (including the major helicopter types supporting land operations, i.e. Chinook and Merlin).

Bowman provides key improvements to capability in what has been dubbed the “three-legged stool” of voice communications, data services and situational awareness.

Bowman Command and Control provides an Automatic Position Location, Navigation and Reporting system (APLNR) which gives Situational Awareness to units throughout the digitised structure. The friendly forces picture can be configured to update unit and vehicle positions automatically. The tactical picture is shown on map displays on a variety of purpose-built data terminals – handheld, portable, vehicle or desk mounted. Key armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs) are fitted with specialised equipments tailored to each vehicle type to facilitate use of the APLNR capability in the specific environment of an AFV. Bowman's Common Battlefield Applications Toolset (ComBAT) provides the main C2 interfaces for users of the Bowman system. This provides mechanisms for messaging, reports and returns. Battle Management capabilities include support for planning functions.

Bowman provides high levels of security based on the UK Pritchel crypto system together with its appliqué crypto and NATO Standard Operating Modes to allow interoperability with NATO allies. The Bowman Key Variable Management System (BKVMS) provides generation and distribution of cryptographic key material.

Bowman's IP-based tactical Internet provides connectivity through the local area system (LAS), the ITT's High Capacity Data Radio (HCDR) and Combat Net Radio (CNR) nets. Resilience is provided by the self-healing ability of IP. A new design of Bowman's gateway equipment also provides voice and data interfaces to existing wide area networking assets such as ptarmigan, SATCOM systems and the public and military telephone networks.
The Bowman Supply and Support contract was awarded to General Dynamics United Kingdom. A review of the program was undertaken in late 2004 and this provided the opportunity to better ensure that it would deliver a capability consistent with the UK MoD’s vision of achieving Network Enabled Capability. Bowman willoing to meet the tactical communications needs of those elements of the three UK Armed Services that take part in, or provide direct support to, UK land, amphibious and air manoeuvre operations until at least 2026. It is expected to provide a secure digital voice and data communications service, including situational awareness capability.

Since initial deployment of 12 Mechanized Brigade to Iraq in April 2005, Bowman has been employed on Operations TELIC and HERRICK. Other brigades have been converted and continued operational experience indicates that Bowman is delivering a battle winning capability.

References: ITT Exelis  (1), UK MoD (2), General Dynamics (3), National Defense (4), SIGNAL (5), Aviation Week (6)

February 17, 2012

Harris' Momentum radios support U.S. Public Safety and Municipal Agengies to meet the FCC's narrowbanding deadline

News Report

As reported in a recent press release, Harris recently announced the availability of Momentum, a complete communications solution for the growing North American Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) user community. Momentum is a scalable digital solution based over an open technology platform which allows public safety, public service, municipal, utility and transportation agencies to meet the FCC's narrowbanding deadline (on January 1, 2013, all public safety and business industrial land mobile radio systems operating in the 150-512 MHz radio bands must cease operating using 25 kHz efficiency technology, and begin operating using at least 12.5 kHz efficiency technology. Migration to 12.5 kHz efficiency technologywill allow the creation of additional channel capacity within the same radio spectrum, and support more users).

The Technology

Momentum is as a standards-based digital communications solution designed to deliver maximum performance within the constraints of tight operating budgets. This solution fully complies with DMR standards and leverages proven digital technology to provide cost-effective, highly-reliable communications. Momentum family of radios includes powerful standards-based TDMA products that are compatible with DMR Tier II (conventional) and Tier III (trunked) compliant systems. It also provides IP connectivity to wide area networks, integrated GPS for fleet management applications, and an intuitive, user-centric interface in a lightweight, durable package.

Momentum line of products includes:
  • HDP150, a software defined DMR Multimode man-portable radio that integrates GPS.
  • HDP100, a light-weight DMR Multimode man-portable radio which provides a simplified user interface offering easy to use analog or digital Push-To-Talk communications.
  • HDM150, a software defined Multimode DMR mobile Radio which meets Military Standards for rain, sand and dust, shock and vibration and, When configured with an optional desktop microphone and power supply, operates as a desktop control station.
  • HDR100, a multimode DMR conventional repeater which operates in compliance with the FCC 2013 Narrowband mandate

"Momentum significantly extends the Harris portfolio of reliable communications solutions to an expanding community of users," said Steve Marschilok, president Harris Public Safety and Professional Communications. "Momentum delivers what public agencies and private organizations require — an affordable, user-friendly and resource-efficient DMR-based voice and data solution, backed by Harris, a recognized global leader in mission critical communications."

References: Harris (1,2)

From Air Traffic Management to Close Air Support: Firentis presents a new C2 application for Joint Fire Deconfliction

News Report

As reported by Digital Battlespace, Frequentis is going to demonstrate a new Command and Control application to the German Bundeswehr next week. The application, named Smart Collaboration @ Joint Fires (SC@JF), has been designed to enable deconfliction between joint fire support cells and is expected to support NATO ISAF fire support operations in Afghanistan, including Close Air Support (CAS).

Defence sources who conducted such operations with NATO's ISAF in Afghanistan during 2010 said a lack of deconfliction between fire missions had caused concern. They admitted that 'mistakes' had been made and called for a software programme to replace 'pen and paper' typically used in Tactical Operations Centres (TOCs) at that time.

The Technology

Firentis' Smart Collaboration @ Joint Fires (SC@JF) is based on a previous solution that was developed for safety critical mission support in Air Traffic Management, named SmartStrips. The new product, that is still in a demonstration phase, is based on a distributed and fail-safe architecture combining three major elements: clients serving as flexible human machine interface, virtual servers as highly reliable service suppliers, and adapters providing universal external interfaces for data exchange with other information systems (including an interface to MIP-compliant systems).

Designed for command posts at brigade and division levels, a typical configuration for the system comprises two large touchscreen displays that automatically upload data from joint terminal attack controllers and alike on the ground. Displays include logging of friendly and enemy positions as well as target information; operational assessments including rules of engagement; risk assessment comprising 'danger close' parameters; and a compilation of effects available to complete the tasking. Information is automatically disseminated to multiple touchscreens- also available in wi-fi tablet form- around an operations room allowing the various specialists involved in a CAS mission to see and verify all the data.

SC@JF incorporates military concepts, including standard operating procedures and standardized processes, in the domain of Joint Fire Support and offers a highly innovative Collaboration and Decision Support Environment. The envisaged use of the system would be to assist operational staff to plan and coordinate engagements and analyse targets from strategic down to tactical level of command.

References: Digital Battlespace (1), Firentis (2)

February 16, 2012

Thales starts delivery of SOTAS digital intercoms to Brazilian Army through its local subsidiary Omnisys

News Report

As reported by Forças Terrestres, Thales's brazilian subsidiary Omnisys has delivered the first batch of SOTAS intercoms to equip brazilian army vehicles, under the terms of a contract that was awarded on last September 2011 by the Centre of Communication and Electronic Warfare (CCOMGEX, Centro de Comunicações e Guerra Eletrônica do Exército). This is the debut of this product in the brazilian market, whose demand is estimated at about three thousand units.

SOTAS intercoms will be integrated into the new Iveco's Urutu VBTP MR-Guarani, and the less modern M113.

The Technology

Developed for use in armored and utility vehicles, the SOTAS digital intercom system provides communication between crew members inside a vehicle and externally over combat net radios and field cables. SOTAS is a highly modular star network consisting of a central switch and several crew stations. Dependent on the functionality of the crew, specific boxes are available providing different functionality (e.g., Commander's Box, Crew Box, Remote Control Box). Using the latest digital transmission technology, voice is distributed digitally over the system providing excellent quality. Using Digital Signal Processors, any noise is filtered out, and the system will switch on automatically in case of any voice communication. The single coaxial highway cables carry power, digital voice, control, and signaling data between the elements of the system. The use of simple coaxial cables ensures easy installation and error-free operation.

SOTAS services are not limited to individual vehicles. SOTAS offers multi-media intervehicle networking: voice, data, video communications, sharing of radios, sensors and computer resources, etc. Vehicles can be connected in any order and in any topology. On connection, SOTAS automatically adapts to the new topology; no management action is required. Thanks to its system architecture, SOTAS provides full support of information from the operations center to the warfighter in the field. The SOTAS gives fighters a joint situational awareness, and with its modular concept, it can be easily adapted and expanded at any time, without interfering with the initial installation.

SOTAS has been installed in nearly 50 vehicle types, spread over 28 different countries. More than 18,000 systems have been deployed worldwide.


"This contract is very important because it results from a national competition, where Thales is transferring the technology to Omnisys, totally in line with the strategy of the Brazilian government regarding the development of defense industry in Brazil," explained Laurent Mourre, Director General of the Thales Group in Brazil.

References: Forças Terrestres (1), Thales (2)

February 15, 2012

Lockheed Martin files a protest for Northrop Grumman's CANES award

News Report

Here in this blog we have recently reported that Northrop Grumman was awarded a $37 Million delivery order for the Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) common computing environment.

The CANES program aims at consolidating and replacing numerous legacy systems and deliver an open, common network to every ship, submarine and shore-based command and control center in the U.S. Navy. The contract awarded by Northrop Grumman includes options, which, if exercised at the maximum quantities, would bring the cumulative value of the contract to an estimated $638 Million. The issuance of this delivery order to Northrop Grumman is the result of the CANES competitive down-select to a single contractor, which has witnessed a head-to-head competition with Lockheed Martin.

As reported by Bloomberg, Lockheed Martin has filed a protest with the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) claiming potential flaws in the evaluation process which could have precluded consideration of the best solution for the U.S. Navy. The protest will be reviewed by GAO, who has now one hundred days to come to a decision. Normally the protested contract is placed on hold while the GAO conducts its review. If Lockheed disagrees with the result then they may appeal to the Federal courts.


Northrop Grumman is confident that its CANES proposal provides the Navy a best-value CANES solution and we stand ready to quickly help the Navy get this critical system to the warfighters,” said Randy Belote, a spokesman for Northrop Grumman. “We are disappointed that a protest was filed and have no further comment at this time.

References: Bloomberg (1), C4I Technology News (2), Defense Procurement News (3)

U.S. Army's operational testing of WIN-T Increment 2

News Report

As reported by U.S. Army, U.S. Soldiers recently began training in preparation for the upcoming Warfighter Information Network-Tactical, or WIN-T, Increment 2 operational test. Soldiers began the 10-week New Equipment Training, or NET, in January in advance of the WIN-T Increment 2 Initial Operational Test and Evaluation, known as an IOT&E, scheduled for next May.

The WIN-T Increment 2 IOT&E will be held in conjunction with the Army's Network Integration Evaluation, or NIE 12.2, where it will be participating as a System Under Test. The analysis and test results from this strenuous three-week IOT&E will be used in the Full Rate Production Decision, scheduled for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

NIE 12.1, which wrapped up in November 2011, already gave the U.S. Army a unique opportunity to evaluate WIN-T Increment 2 in an operational environment about six months before its IOT&E. U.S. soldiers took the system for a test drive to evaluate its performance and provide valuable feedback well before the normal test cycle, enabling the Army to smooth out any rough edges and better prepare it for the formal operational test in the next spring. NIE 12.1, in particular, provided the first opportunity in which WIN-T Increment 2 was installed and evaluated on Mine Resistant Ambush Protected, or MRAP All Terrain Vehicles.

The Technology

As already illustrated in this blog, WIN-T is the U.S. Army’s on-the-move, high-speed, high-capacity backbone communications network, linking Warfighters on the battlefield with the Global Information Grid (GIG). WIN-T introduces a mobile, ad-hoc, self-configuring, self-healing network using satellite on-the-move capabilities, robust network management, and high-bandwidth radio systems to keep mobile forces connected, communicating, and synchronized.

Similar to a home Internet connection, WIN-T Increment 1 provided Soldiers with high-speed, high-capacity voice, data and video communications to units at battalion level, with Soldiers having only to pull over to the side of the road to communicate. WIN-T Increment 1 was defined as providing “networking at-the-halt” and consists of a Joint compatible communications package that allows the Warfighter to use advanced networking capabilities, retain interoperability with current force systems, and keep in step with future increments of WIN-T. Increment 1 is a rapidly deployable, early-entry system housed in an S-250 shelter and mounted on an ECV HMMWV for roll-on/roll-off mobility.

WIN-T Increment 2 adds warfighter mobility and provides a communication network down to the Company level. Increment 2 enables mobile battle command from Division to Company in a completely ad-hoc, self-forming network. The WIN-T Increment 2 addition of embedding communications gear in the Commander’s vehicles enables SIPR (Secure Internet Protocol Router) into the Warfighting platform. Commanders and select staff have the ability to maneuver anywhere on the battlefield and maintain connectivity to the network. Since the WIN-T Increment 2 network is self-forming and self-healing, it provides a new level of flexibility to support changing mission requirements. Not only does it add on-the-move communications capabilities down to the company level, but it will also allow combat net radio and data networks to be extended beyond-line-of-sight. An initial Network Operations, or NETOPS capability will also be fielded to facilitate the planning, initialization, monitoring, management and response of the network. Additional features of WIN-T Increment 2 are:
  • a "colorless core" which provides an enhanced level of communications security;
  • automated planning for WIN-T waveforms (Net Centric waveforms, NCW, and Highband Network Waveform, HNW);
  • propagation analysis for Line Of Sight (LOS) waveforms; 
  • On-The-Move (OTM) node planning;
  • automated link planning for currently fielded systems;
  • initial automated Spectrum Management;
  • initial Quality of Service (QoS) planning & monitoring;
  • map based monitoring;
  • over the air network management and configuration of WIN-T Radios.
WIN-T Increment 3 will continue development of WIN-T components to meet the full range of network capacity, security, and full on-the-move capabilities for the modular force. Increment 3 introduces the air tier providing a three-tiered architecture: a) traditional line-of-sight, b) airborne through the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and other airborne platforms, c) satellites.


"WIN-T Increment 2 will provide a number of transformational capabilities for the Army's tactical communications network," said Lt. Col. Robert Collins, product manager for WIN-T Increments 2 and 3. "This training is the first step in readiness for the operational test and our first opportunity to thoroughly train the Soldiers and give them all the right field tests to be able to operate and deploy the network."

"The power of WIN-T Increment 2 lies in its integrated terrestrial and satellite communications or SATCOM network," said Col. Edward Swanson, project manager for WIN-T. "Being able to command the battlespace securely and effectively while on-the-move, despite terrain obstructions, will transform how the Army operates and significantly increase mission success."

The Context

In 1999, almost one decade after Desert Storm, a U.S. Joint Requirements Operational Concept (JROC) established a new program of record to move tactical communications into the realm of net-centric communications. This program was entitled Warfighter Information Network, Tactical or WIN-T. It emerged as the U.S. Army embarked on the Chief of Staff's Transformation Roadmap under the U.S. DoD communications architecture umbrella known as the Global Information Grid (GIG). WIN-T was expected to take full advantage of emerging network technologies and provide voice, video, and data for the warfighter.

In 2002, two separate competitive contracts were awarded to General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin to perform system engineering tasks, program management tasks and engineering services necessary to conduct initial requirements analyses and generate network architecture designs. In 2004, the U.S. Defense Acquisition Executive authorized a revised acquisition approach for the WIN-T program. The new approach combined the two contractors into a single team with General Dynamics as the prime and Lockheed Martin as a major subcontractor.

In July 2006, the WIN-T schedule slipped five years from initial operational capability (IOC) fielding in 2008, to an IOC in 2013.

In September 2007 the U.S. Army awarded the General Dynamics-Lockheed Martin a WIN-T contract modification valued at up to $921 million to continue development of the WIN-T system and to accelerate delivery of WIN-T capabilities to the existing modular force. The $921 million in modifications comprised WIN-T Increment 2 and WIN-T Increment 3.

References: U.S. Army (1), C4I Technology News (2), Global Security (3), General Dynamics (4)